Influenza vaccine

Main Editor Pinika Patel
Language en
Last Update Jul 22, 2019
Published Date Jul 22, 2019


PICO 1.1
P: Healthy individuals aged 16 to 65 years, irrespective of influenza status in community-based studies in North America, South America, and Europe (1969 to 2009). Studies which had more than 25% of individuals outside the age range were excluded. Pregnant women were included together with their newborns. 52 clinical trials in over 80,000 people. Note 15 trials were industry funded (29%).
I: Inactivated parenteral influenza vaccine
C: placebo or 'do nothing'

PICO 2.1
P: Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children - Healthy children under 16 years of age in any geographical location. All participants were classified as healthy unless otherwise stated.. Studies that documented the inclusion of participants with chronic illnesses/conditions or immunodeficiency were excluded
I: Influenza vaccine - All vaccine types
C: placebo

PICO 3.1
P: Elderly (people aged over 65) in community and residential care institutions in the USA and Europe during influenza seasons between 1965 and 2000 - Excluded studies assessing efficacy in selected groups affected by a specific chronic pathology (i.e. diabetes or cardiac disease), as we were interested in the whole population.
I: Influenza vaccines
C: no vaccination: cohort studies in nursing homes

PICO 4.1
P: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - Included studies of adults with COPD, as defined by the American Thoracic Society (ATS 1995), or European Respiratory Society (Siafakas 1995). Also included studies with participants who were defined as having chronic bronchitis.
I: Inactivated influenza vaccine
C: Placebo

PICO 5.1
P: Influenza vaccines in immunosuppressed adults with cancer
I: Influenza vaccine
C: none

PICO 6.1
P: Pregnant women
I: Inactivated influenza vaccine
C: No vaccine

PICO 7.1
P: Children and Adults with Cystic Fibrosis
I: Intranasal live vaccine
C: Intramuscular trivalent inactivated vaccine

PICO 8.1
P: Vaccines for preventing influenza in children. Children under 16 years of age from any geographical location
I: inactivated influenza vaccination
C: placebo or do nothing