Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare (2019)

Main Editor National Health and Medical Research Council
Language en
Last Update Jul 19, 2019
Published Date Jul 19, 2019
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Publication details
Publication title: Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare (2019)
Published: May 2019
Publisher: National Health and Medical Research Council
NHMRC Publication Reference: CD34 
Online version (interactive app): www.magicapp.org
Online version (PDF): www.nhmrc.gov.au/health-advice/public-health/preventing-infection
ISBN Online: 978-1-86496-028-0

Suggested citation: National Health and Medical Research Council (2019) Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.

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© Commonwealth of Australia 2019
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Sponsors The Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare were co-funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council and Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care.
Abstract

The Guidelines provide a nationally accepted approach to infection prevention and control, focusing on core principles and priority areas for action. They provide a basis for healthcare workers and healthcare facilities to develop detailed protocols and processes for infection prevention and control specific to local settings.
 
This approach is underpinned by a risk-management framework to ensure the basic principles of infection prevention and control can be applied to a wide range of healthcare settings including hospitals, day procedure units, office-based practice, long-term care facilities, remote area health services, home and community nursing and emergency services. It is recognised that the level of risk may differ according to the different types of facility and therefore some recommendations should be justified by risk assessment. When implementing these recommendations all healthcare facilities need to consider the risk of transmission of infection and implement according to their specific setting and circumstances.
 
The evidence base for the Guidelines addresses the highest level of risk of infection transmission in the healthcare setting, and has predominantly been drawn from the acute-care setting. The recommendations should be read in the context of the evidence base and the advice on the practical application of the recommendations.

PICOS
PICO 1.0
P: Healthcare Workers
I: Hand hygiene
C: Non-alcohol based products
O:

PICO 1.0
P: Healthcare Workers
I: ABHRs containing between 60% and 80% v/v ethanol or equivalent
C: ABHRs with lower concentration of ethanol or equivalent
O:

PICO 1.0
P: Healthcare Workers ,
I: Hand hygiene ,
C: No hand hygiene ,
O: ,

PICO 1.0
P: Healthcare Workers
I: Hand hygiene comparing different concentrations of alcohol, and of different alcohols e.g. ethyl, methyl, isopropyl, in reducing the risk of transmission of Clostridium difficile and non-enveloped viruses
C: Washing with water and soap/detergent/chlorhexidine, other concentrations of same alcohol, other alcohols on Clostridium difficile and non-enveloped viruses
O:

PICO 3.0
P: Bacteria, non-enveloped and enveloped viruses
I: Site decontamination after spills of blood or other potentially infectious materials
C: No site decontamination
O:

PICO 1.0
P: Patients
I: Environmental surfaces coated or impregnated with antimicrobial (self‚Äźdisinfecting) materials
C: Standard-surfaced objects
O:

PICO 1.0
P: Patients
I: Sodium hypochlorite
C: Standard cleaning practice
O:

PICO 1.0
P: Patients
I: Hydrogen peroxide vapour disinfection and standard cleaning/disinfection
C: Standard cleaning practice
O:

PICO 1.0
P: Patients
I: Ultra-violet light disinfection and standard cleaning/disinfection
C: Standard terminal room disinfection (sodium hypochlorite)
O:

PICO 1.0
P: Patients
I: Ultra-violet light disinfection and sodium hypochlorite
C: Standard cleaning practices
O:

PICO 2.0
P: Patients
I: Hand hygiene and personal protective equipment
C: No hand hygiene and no personal protective equipment
O:

PICO 2.0
P: Patients
I: Patient-dedicated/single-use patient-care equipment
C: Reusable equipment
O:

PICO 3.0
P: Patients
I: Droplet precautions
C: Non-droplet precautions
O:

PICO 3.0
P: Patients
I: Personal protective equipment
C: No personal protective equipment
O:

PICO 4.0
P: Patients
I: Airborne precautions
C: Non-airborne precautions
O:

PICO 3.0
P: Healthcare workers
I: Masks and protective eyewear
C: No masks and protective eyewear
O:

PICO 3.0
P: Healthcare workers
I: Aprons and Gowns
C: No aprons and gowns
O:

PICO 4.0
P: Patients colonised or infected with a Multi-Resistant Organism (MRO)
I: Transmission-based precautions
C: Non--transmission-based precautions
O:

PICO 1.1
P: Patients
I: Hand hygiene
C: No hand hygiene
O:

PICO 2.1
P: Healthcare Workers
I: Safety Devices
C: Non-retractable devices
O:

PICO 3.1
P: Bacteria, non-enveloped and enveloped viruses
I: Cleaning agent
C: Frequency of agent use considering survival rates of the organisms
O:

PICO 6.1
P: Healthcare workers
I: Sterile gloves
C: Non-sterile gloves
O:

PICO 2.1
P: Patients
I: Contact Precautions
C: Non-contact Precautions
O:

PICO 2.1
P: Patients
I: Device insertion and management
C: Comparisons of one form of skin antisepsis with others, e.g. alcoholic vs aqueous products including chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, betadine
O:

PICO 4.1
P: Patients
I: Chlorhexidine use
C: No Chlorhexidine use
O:

PICO 2.1
P: Healthcare workers
I: Policies and procedures for clinical handover
C: No formalised process for clinical handover
O:

PICO 2.1
P: Healthcare workers
I: Exclusion period
C: Different periods of time
O:

PICO 3.1
P: Healthcare workers
I: Education programs
C: Other education programs
O:

PICO 2.2
P: Healthcare workers
I: Immediate disposal of sharps
C: Non-immediate disposal of sharps
O:

PICO 3.2
P: Bacteria, non-enveloped and enveloped viruses
I: Environmental cleaning agent
C: Alternative environmental cleaning agents and mode of transmission of organisms
O:

PICO 2.2
P: Patients
I: Bay closures
C: Ward closures
O:

PICO 2.2
P: Patients
I: Systems and processes for device management
C: No systems and processes for device management
O:

PICO 4.2
P: Patients
I: Risk register for chlorhexidine
C: No risk register for chlorhexidine
O:

PICO 3.3
P: Patients
I: Disinfection/bleach, hand washing/soap/water, personal protective equipment etc
C: Other, alcohol based
O:

PICO 3.4
P: Healthcare workers
I: Surface barriers
C: No surface barriers
O: