Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Acute Stress Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Published by Dr Ros Lethbridge on May 27, 2021

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Approved by NHMRC on 23 June 2020 on the advice of NHMRC Council under section 14A of the National Health and Medical Research Council Act 1992

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Abstract

Language

en

PICOS

PICO 1.1

Population
Children and adolescents within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Psychoeducation
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.1

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT for child
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.1

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Group debriefing
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.1

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Trauma focused-CBT
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.2

Population
Children and adolescents within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Self-directed online psychoeducation for caregivers and children
Comparator
Waitlist/ usual care
Outcomes

PICO 1.2

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT for child
Comparator
Non-directive counselling
Outcomes

PICO 1.2

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Individual debriefing
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.2

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Non-trauma focused CBT
Outcomes

PICO 1.3

Population
Children and adolescents within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Self-directed online psychoeducation intervention for children only
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.3

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT for child
Comparator
Psychoeducation
Outcomes

PICO 1.3

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
EMDR
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.3

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Present Centred Therapy
Outcomes

PICO 1.4

Population
Children and adolescents within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Self-directed online psychoeducation for caregivers only
Comparator
Waitlist/ usual care
Outcomes

PICO 1.4

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT for child
Comparator
EMDR
Outcomes

PICO 1.4

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
EMDR
Comparator
Reassurance
Outcomes

PICO 1.4

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Supportive counselling
Outcomes

PICO 1.5

Population
Children and adolescents within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Individual psychological debriefing
Comparator
Waitlist/ usual care
Outcomes

PICO 1.5

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Group trauma-focused CBT for child
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.5

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Individual psychoeducation/self-help
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.5

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Psychodynamic therapy
Outcomes

PICO 1.6

Population
Children and adolescents within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Brief CBT
Comparator
Waitlist/usual care
Outcomes

PICO 1.6

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Group trauma-focused CBT for child
Comparator
Group resilience building intervention
Outcomes

PICO 1.6

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Group stress management
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.6

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
Outcomes

PICO 1.7

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT for caregiver
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.7

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Computerised visuospatial task
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.7

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT (CPT)
Comparator
Dialogical exposure therapy (DET)
Outcomes

PICO 1.8

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT for caregiver
Comparator
Trauma-focused CBT for caregiver and child
Outcomes

PICO 1.8

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Group 512 PIM
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.8

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Psychoeducation
Outcomes

PICO 1.9

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT for caregiver
Comparator
Trauma-focused CBT for child
Outcomes

PICO 1.9

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Group 512 PIM
Comparator
Group debriefing
Outcomes

PICO 1.9

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Relaxation training
Outcomes

PICO 1.10

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT for caregiver and child
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.10

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Group education
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.10

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.11

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT for caregiver and child
Comparator
Non-directive counselling
Outcomes

PICO 1.11

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Reassurance
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.11

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Cognitive Processing Therapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.12

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT for caregiver and child
Comparator
EMDR
Outcomes

PICO 1.12

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Trauma-focused counselling
Comparator
Heart stress counselling
Outcomes

PICO 1.12

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Brief EMDR
Comparator
Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CSID)
Outcomes

PICO 1.12

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Cognitive processing therapy (CPT)
Comparator
Prolonged exposure (PE)
Outcomes

PICO 1.13

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT for caregiver and child
Comparator
Trauma-focused CBT for child
Outcomes

PICO 1.13

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Cognitive Therapy
Comparator
Waitlist
Outcomes

PICO 1.14

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT for caregiver and child
Comparator
Stepped care trauma-focused CBT for caregiver and child
Outcomes

PICO 1.14

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET)
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.15

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Group trauma-focused CBT for caregiver and child
Comparator
Supportive group therapy
Outcomes

PICO 1.15

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Prolonged Exposure
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.16

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Individual and group trauma-focused CBT for caregiver and child
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.16

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Prolonged exposure
Comparator
Health Education
Outcomes

PICO 1.17

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.17

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Single Session CBT-T
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.18

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Non-directive counselling
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.18

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Reconsolidation of traumatic memories (RTM)
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.19

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Group psychoeducation
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.19

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
EMDR
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.20

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Family therapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.20

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
EMDR
Comparator
Trauma-focused CBT
Outcomes

PICO 1.21

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
kidNET
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.21

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
EMDR
Comparator
Supportive counselling
Outcomes

PICO 1.22

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
kidNET
Comparator
Non-directive counselling
Outcomes

PICO 1.22

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
EMDR
Comparator
Emotional freedom techniques (EFT)
Outcomes

PICO 1.23

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Parent-child relationship enhancement (play therapy)
Comparator
Case management plus individual treatment for parent
Outcomes

PICO 1.23

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
EMDR
Comparator
Relaxation training
Outcomes

PICO 1.24

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Parent-child relationship enhancement (play therapy)
Comparator
Trauma-focused CBT for caregiver and child
Outcomes

PICO 1.24

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
EMDR
Comparator
REM desensitisation
Outcomes

PICO 1.25

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Non-trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Waitlist
Outcomes

PICO 1.26

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Non-trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Present centred therapy (PCT)
Outcomes

PICO 1.27

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Stress inoculation training (SIT)
Comparator
Supportive counselling
Outcomes

PICO 1.28

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Supportive counselling
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.29

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Supportive counselling
Comparator
Psychoeducation
Outcomes

PICO 1.30

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Present centred therapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.31

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Psychodynamic therapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.32

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Written exposure therapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.33

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Written exposure therapy
Comparator
Trauma-focused CBT
Outcomes

PICO 1.34

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Virtual Reality Therapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.35

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Virtual reality therapy
Comparator
Control exposure
Outcomes

PICO 1.36

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Virtual reality therapy
Comparator
Present centred therapy
Outcomes

PICO 1.37

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Observed and experiential integration (OEI)
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.38

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Relaxation training
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.39

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Group trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.40

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Group trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Group present centred therapy
Outcomes

PICO 1.41

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Group trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Individual trauma-focused CBT
Outcomes

PICO 1.42

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Group and individual CBT with a trauma focus
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.43

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Stabilising group treatment
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.44

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Group interpersonal therapy (IPT)
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.45

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Couples CBT with a trauma focus
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.46

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Guided internet-based trauma focused CBT
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.47

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Guided internet-based trauma focused CBT
Comparator
Attention control
Outcomes

PICO 1.48

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Guided internet-based trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Internet-based non-trauma-focused supportive counselling
Outcomes

PICO 1.49

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Guided internet-based trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Internet-based psychoeducation
Outcomes

PICO 1.50

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Dialogical exposure therapy (DET)
Outcomes

PICO 1.51

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Interpersonal therapy
Comparator
Relaxation training
Outcomes

PICO 1.52

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Metacognitive Therapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.53

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Stress Inoculation Therapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 1.54

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Group trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Applied muscle relaxation
Outcomes

PICO 1.55

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Supportive counselling
Outcomes

PICO 1.56

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Relaxation training
Outcomes

PICO 1.57

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) + TAU
Comparator
TAU
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
Children and adolescents within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Stepped preventative care intervention
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Sertraline
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
Adults in the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Brief individual trauma processing therapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.2

Population
Children and adolescents within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI)
Comparator
Supportive care
Outcomes

PICO 2.2

Population
Adults in the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Brief individual trauma processing therapy
Comparator
Supportive listening
Outcomes

PICO 2.2

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
SSRIs- Fluoxetine
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.3

Population
Children and adolescents within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Brief trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 2.3

Population
Adults in the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Three step early intervention for mothers of infants born prematurely
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 2.3

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
SSRIs- Paroxetine
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.4

Population
Children and adolescents within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT (NET)
Comparator
Meditation
Outcomes

PICO 2.4

Population
Adults in the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Brief dyadic therapies
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 2.4

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
SSRIs- Sertraline
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.5

Population
Adults in the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Guided internet-based CBT
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 2.5

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Citalopram
Comparator
Sertraline
Outcomes

PICO 2.6

Population
Adults in the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Intensive care diaries
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 2.6

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Sertraline
Comparator
Nefazadone
Outcomes

PICO 2.7

Population
Adults in the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Brief Interpersonal Counselling
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 2.7

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Serotonin and nor-adrenaline re-uptake inhibitors- Venlafaxine
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.8

Population
Adults in the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Collaborative care
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 2.8

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Venlafaxine
Comparator
Sertraline
Outcomes

PICO 2.9

Population
Adults in the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Supported psychoeducational intervention
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 2.9

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Nor-adrenergic and specific serotonin antidepressant- Mirtazapine
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.10

Population
Adults in the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Telephone-based CBT
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 2.10

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Tricyclic antidepressant- Amitriptyline
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.11

Population
Adults in the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Telephone + Internet-based CBT
Comparator
Critical illness educational intervention
Outcomes

PICO 2.11

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Tricyclic antidepressant- Imipramine
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.12

Population
Adults in the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Communication facilitator in an intensive care setting
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 2.12

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors- Brofaromine
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.13

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Nurse-led intensive care recovery program
Comparator
WL/TAU
Outcomes

PICO 2.13

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors- Phenelzine
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.14

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Phenelzine
Comparator
Imipramine
Outcomes

PICO 2.15

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Antipsychotics- Olanzapine
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.16

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Antipsychotics- Quetiapine
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.17

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Antiepileptics- Divalproex
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.18

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Antiepileptics- Lamotrigine
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.19

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Antiepileptics- Tiagabine
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.20

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Antiepileptics- Topiramate
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.21

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Ganaxolone
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.22

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Ketamine
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 2.23

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Neurokinin-1 antagonist
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 3.1

Population
Children and adolescents within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Propranolol
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 3.1

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Mind-body skills group
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.1

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.1

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Yoga
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.2

Population
Children and adolescents with clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms
Intervention
Trauma-focused expressive art therapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.2

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Supportive counselling
Outcomes

PICO 3.2

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Acupuncture
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.3

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Brief prolonged exposure-based interventions
Comparator
Supportive counselling
Outcomes

PICO 3.3

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Acupuncture
Comparator
Trauma-focused CBT
Outcomes

PICO 3.4

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Brief CPT-based interventions
Comparator
Supportive counselling
Outcomes

PICO 3.4

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Physical exercise
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.5

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Relaxation
Outcomes

PICO 3.5

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Mantram repetition
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.6

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Structured writing therapy
Outcomes

PICO 3.6

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Mantram repetition
Comparator
Present centred therapy
Outcomes

PICO 3.7

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Trauma-focused CBT
Comparator
Self-help program
Outcomes

PICO 3.7

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Group music therapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.8

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Prolonged exposure
Comparator
Cognitive therapy
Outcomes

PICO 3.8

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Nature adventure therapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.9

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Prolonged exposure
Comparator
Wait list
Outcomes

PICO 3.9

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
Comparator
Sham TMS
Outcomes

PICO 3.10

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Cognitive therapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.10

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Neurofeedback
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.11

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Brief EMDR
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.11

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Somatic experiencing
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.12

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Saikokaishikankyoto
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.13

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Present centered therapy (HOPE)
Comparator
Waitlist/TAU
Outcomes

PICO 3.13

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Mindfulness-based stress reduction
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.14

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Structured writing therapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.14

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Mindfulness-based stress reduction
Comparator
Present centred therapy
Outcomes

PICO 3.15

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Structured writing therapy
Comparator
Psychoeducation
Outcomes

PICO 3.15

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Mindfulness-based stress reduction
Comparator
Psychoeducation
Outcomes

PICO 3.16

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Internet-based guided self-help
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.16

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Attentional bias modification
Comparator
Attention control placebo
Outcomes

PICO 3.17

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Behavioural activation
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.17

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Hypnotherapy
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.18

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Supportive counselling
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.18

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Hypnotherapy
Comparator
Trauma-focused CBT
Outcomes

PICO 3.19

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Stepped/collaborative care
Comparator
Waitlist/ treatment as usual
Outcomes

PICO 3.19

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Electroacupuncture
Comparator
Paroxetine
Outcomes

PICO 3.20

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Computerised neurobehavioural training
Comparator
Computerised games control condition
Outcomes

PICO 3.20

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Transcendental meditation
Comparator
Prolonged exposure
Outcomes

PICO 3.21

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Computerised neurobehavioural training
Comparator
Reading tasks control condition
Outcomes

PICO 3.21

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Transcendental meditation
Comparator
Psychoeducation
Outcomes

PICO 3.22

Population
Adults within the first three months post-traumatic event
Intervention
Nurse-led psychological intervention
Comparator
TAU
Outcomes

PICO 3.22

Population
Adults with PTSD
Intervention
Stellate Ganglion Block
Comparator
Sham procedure
Outcomes

PICO 4.1

Population
Adults within the first three months of a traumatic event
Intervention
Docosahexaenoic Acid
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 4.2

Population
Adults within the first three months of a traumatic event
Intervention
Escitalopram
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 4.3

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Hydrocortisone
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 4.4

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Oxytocin
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 4.5

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Propranolol
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 4.6

Population
Adults within the first three months post traumatic event
Intervention
Gabapentin
Comparator
Placebo
Outcomes

PICO 5.1

Population
Adults
Intervention
Attention bias modification training (ABMT)
Comparator
No training control
Outcomes

PICO 5.2

Population
Adults
Intervention
Attention bias modification training (ABMT)
Comparator
Attention Control Training (ACT)
Outcomes

PICO 5.3

Population
Adults
Intervention
Attention Control Training (ACT)
Comparator
No training control
Outcomes

PICO 5.4

Population
Adults
Intervention
Single session Attention Bias Modification Training (ABMT)
Comparator
Attention Control Training (ACT)
Outcomes

PICO 5.5

Population
Adults
Intervention
MAPS resilience training
Comparator
Training as usual (TAU)
Outcomes

PICO 5.6

Population
Adults
Intervention
Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB)
Comparator
Control
Outcomes

PICO 5.7

Population
Adults
Intervention
Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB)
Comparator
Cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I)
Outcomes

PICO 5.8

Population
Adults
Intervention
Cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I)
Comparator
Control
Outcomes

PICO 5.9

Population
Adults
Intervention
Stress inoculation training (SIT)
Comparator
Control
Outcomes