WHO Guideline on self-care interventions for health and well-being

Published by World Health Organization on Jul 22, 2021

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Abstract

Language

en

PICOS

PICO 1.1

Population
Individuals of reproductive age using injectable contraception - randomized controlled trials
Intervention
Provision of injectable contraception including selfadministration options
Comparator
Provision of injectable contraception that does not include self-administration as an option (i.e. provider-administrated only)
Outcomes

PICO 1.1

Population
Individuals aged 30-60 years
Intervention
Cervical screening services that include human papillomavirus virus self-sampling (HPVSS)
Comparator
Cervical screening services that do not include HPVSS (e.g. cervical screening by cytology, visual inspection with acetic acid [VIA] testing services, clinician-collected primary HPV testing)
Outcomes

PICO 1.2

Population
Individuals of reproductive age using injectable contraception- observational studies
Intervention
Provision of injectable contraception including selfadministration options
Comparator
Provision of injectable contraception that does not include self-administration as an option (i.e. provider-administrated only)
Outcomes

PICO 1.2

Population
Individuals using sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing services
Intervention
STI testing services that include self-collection samples (SCS)
Comparator
STI testing services that do not include SCS, or no STI testing services (i.e. no intervention)
Outcomes

PICO 1.3

Population
Individuals using oral contraceptive pills - newer studies (2000s)
Intervention
Over-the-counter (OTC) (i.e. without a prescription) oral contraceptive pills (OCPs); including (a) “off the shelf” with no screening and (b) “behind the counter” pharmacy access dispensed (with screening) by trained pharmacy staff
Comparator
Prescription only oral contraceptive pills (OCPs)
Outcomes

PICO 1.4

Population
Individuals using oral contraceptive pills - older studies (1970s)
Intervention
Over-the-counter (OTC) (i.e. without a prescription) oral contraceptive pills (OCPs); including (a) “off the shelf” with no screening and (b) “behind the counter” pharmacy access dispensed (with screening) by trained pharmacy staff
Comparator
Prescription only oral contraceptive pills (OCPs)
Outcomes

PICO 1.5

Population
Individuals attempting to become pregnant
Intervention
Home-based ovulation predictor kits (OPKs) available for fertility management
Comparator
Home-based ovulation predictor kits (OPKs) not available for fertility management
Outcomes

PICO 3.1

Population
Individuals using emergency contraceptive pills
Intervention
Availability of emergency contraceptive pills over the counter (without a prescription or screening) or from a pharmacist (behind-the-counter or pharmacy access)
Comparator
Availability by prescription only (by a clinician other than a pharmacist)
Outcomes

PICO 4.1

Population
Pregnant individuals with chronic hypertension
Intervention
Self-monitoring of blood pressure (either by the pregnant individual or by another layperson, such as a family member)
Comparator
Clinic blood pressure monitoring by health workers during antenatal contacts only
Outcomes

PICO 4.1

Population
Individuals seeking pregnancy testing
Intervention
Urine self-testing for pregnancy
Comparator
Healthcare provider-led testing for pregnancy (health facility or community clinic with either urine and/or serum test for pregnancy)
Outcomes

PICO 4.1

Population
Sexually active individuals
Intervention
Use of lubricant during sexual activity (defined as any penetration, including vaginal/anal, with/without a partner, and with any object)
Comparator
Sexual activity without lubricant
Outcomes

PICO 4.2

Population
Pregnant individuals with gestational hypertension
Intervention
Self-monitoring of blood pressure (either by the pregnant individual or by another layperson, such as a family member)
Comparator
Clinic blood pressure monitoring by health workers during antenatal contacts only
Outcomes

PICO 4.3

Population
Pregnant individuals with chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, or high risk of developing preeclampsia
Intervention
Self-monitoring of blood pressure (either by the pregnant individual or by another layperson, such as a family member)
Comparator
Clinic blood pressure monitoring by health workers during antenatal contacts only
Outcomes

PICO 5.1

Population
Pregnant individuals
Intervention
Self-testing for proteinuria (either by the pregnant individual or by another layperson, such as a family member)
Comparator
Clinic proteinuria testing by health workers during antenatal care contacts only
Outcomes

PICO 6.1

Population
Pregnant individuals diagnosed with gestational diabetes
Intervention
Self-monitoring of blood glucose (either by the pregnant individual or by another layperson, such as a family member)
Comparator
Clinic blood glucose monitoring by health workers during antenatal contacts only
Outcomes