Infection prevention and control in the context of coronavirus disease (COVID-19): A guideline

Published by WHO Health Emergencies - Infection Prevention and Control on Dec 21, 2023

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Abstract

WHO/2019-nCoV/IPC/guideline/2023.4

© World Health Organization 2023

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Suggested citation. Infection prevention and control in the context of coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a living guideline, 9 October 2023. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2023 (WHO/2019-nCoV/IPC/guideline/ 2023.3). Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

 

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PICOS

PICO 1.1

Population
Health-care settings
Intervention
Differential cleaning measures beyond standard environmental cleaning
Comparator
Standard precautions for environmental cleaning
Outcomes

PICO 1.1

Population
Community
Intervention
Methods to improve mask fitting
Comparator
An ill-fitting mask (does not fit snugly, gaps)
Outcomes

PICO 1.1

Population
Community/households
Intervention
Soap and water (cleaning alone)
Comparator
Bleach-based cleaner (disinfectants)
Outcomes

PICO 1.2

Population
Communities
Intervention
Spraying
Comparator
Mechanical cleaning (wiping, brushing, scrubbing)
Outcomes

PICO 1.2

Population
Health-care settings
Intervention
Spraying
Comparator
Mechanical cleaning (wiping, brushing, scrubbing)
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
Personnel handling waste
Intervention
Infectious waste
Comparator
Noninfectious waste
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
Health and care workers
Intervention
Designated single operating room
Comparator
No designated operating room
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
Personnel handling waste in health-care facilities
Intervention
Infectious waste
Comparator
Noninfectious waste
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
All people
Intervention
Wearing of facemask during physical activity
Comparator
Not using face mask during physical activity
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
Asymptomatic COVID-19 patients
Intervention
Isolation for 5 days after positive test
Comparator
Isolation for 10 days after positive test
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
Health care settings
Intervention
Ventilation standards for health care (all health care spaces have variations of their own ventilation standards, but specifically ANSI/ASHRAE/ASHE Standard 170-2017 Ventilation of Health Care Facilities - Addendum, vol. 2017)
Comparator
Ventilation standards for healthcare settings are not met (non-compliance with all requirements)
Outcomes

PICO 2.2

Population
Health and care workers
Intervention
Terminal Cleaning
Comparator
Standard cleaning
Outcomes

PICO 2.2

Population
Symptomatic COVID-19 patients 
Intervention
Isolation for 5 days after symptom onset
Comparator
Isolation for 10 days after symptom onset plus 3 additional days without symptoms
Outcomes

PICO 2.3

Population
Patients with COVID-19
Intervention
Remove isolation based on negative antigen test after Isolation 5 days
Comparator
Isolation for 10 days
Outcomes

PICO 3.1

Population
Personnel handling linens
Intervention
Above standard
Comparator
Standard precautions for routine handling of linens and laundry
Outcomes

PICO 3.1

Population
Community/households
Intervention
Glove use
Comparator
No glove use
Outcomes

PICO 3.1

Population
Health-care
Intervention
Physical barriers
Comparator
No physical barriers
Outcomes

PICO 3.1

Population
Personnel handling linens in health-care facilities
Intervention
Above standard
Comparator
Standard precautions for routine handling of linens and laundry
Outcomes

PICO 4.1

Population
Health-care workers, mortuary staff, those working with a decedent with a COVID-19 infection
Intervention
PPE (Mask, gown, gloves, face shield), body bag
Comparator
No PPE, Limited PPE, no body bag/covering
Outcomes

PICO 4.1

Population
Health and care workers
Intervention
1 metre of physical distance
Comparator
More than 1 metre of physical distance; less than 1 metre
Outcomes

PICO 5.1

Population
Health and care workers
Intervention
Targeted continuous masking/universal masking
Comparator
No mask use
Outcomes

PICO 5.2

Population
Health and care workers
Intervention
Universal masking
Comparator
No universal masking
Outcomes

PICO 5.3

Population
Health and care workers
Intervention
Methods to improve mask fitting
Comparator
An ill-fitting mask (does not fit snugly, has gaps)
Outcomes

PICO 6.1

Population
Health and care workers
Intervention
disposable filtering facepiece respirators
Comparator
surgical masks, and cloth masks
Outcomes

PICO 7.1

Population
Health and Care Workers
Intervention
Airborne Precautions
Comparator
Droplet/Contact precautions
Outcomes